Astronomers once pictured the cosmos as an arena of calm, as planets moved serenely in their orbits around stars, stars orbited within galaxies, and galaxies moved through galaxy clusters. From time to time, something happens that forms a part of the material universe, especially outside of the earth that is immeasurably extended in time and space that is regarded as happening; an occurrence, especially one of some importance and have revealed cosmic arenas of extreme violence.
Crucial news about these violent locales reaches Earth in the form of high-energy x-ray and gamma-ray photons, typically created in enormous outbursts thus creating COSMIC EVENTS. Earth's atmosphere blocks all x-rays and gamma rays, protecting life on Earth's surface but seriously restricting our ability to study the most violent cosmic phenomena. In humainitys efforts to improve our ability to observe the universe,astronomers have followed two lines of technological development. First, we have designed and constructed increasingly powerful telescopes and detectors,capable of observing progressively fainter sources with greater clarity. To that extent, astronomers will construct telescopes with ever finer resolution, and will also link these instruments to create systems whose observational precision equals that of a single giant telescope as large as the maximum separation of the individual instruments. Second, as a more subtle but equally important way to widen our observational capabilities, astronomers have attempted to study different regions of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This spectrum includes a variety of waves that differ in their wavelengths of vibration. Only a tiny part of the spectrum includes the waves that our eyes can detect. We call these waves "light," and our eyes and brains recognize the different wavelengths of light as different colors.
New record for farthest galaxy cluster
A new record for the most distant galaxy cluster has been set. Astronomers say the cluster, 11.1 billion light-years away, might have been caught right after birth.
Nasa Mars announcement: When is it and what are the four things
Nasa is due to reveal new findings about the atmosphere of Mars which could give hints about the planet's past and the possibility of life on the red planet.
Nasa is to hold a press conference to give new details about Mars. Nasa says it will reveal "key science findings" about the fate of Mars' atmosphere. Nasa will host its news conference on Thursday at 2pm EDT (7pm GMT). (read more)
Hubble spies Big Bang frontiers
An international team of astronomers, led by Hakim Atek of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, has discovered over 250 tiny galaxies that existed only 600-900 million years after the Big Bang  — one of the largest samples of dwarf galaxies yet to be discovered at these epochs. The light from these galaxies took over 12 billion years to reach the telescope, allowing the astronomers to look back in time when the universe was still very young. (read more)
Complex life may be possible in only 10% of all galaxies
The universe may be a lonelier place than previously thought. Of the estimated 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe, only one in 10 can support complex life like that on Earth, a pair of astrophysicists argues. Everywhere else, stellar explosions known as gamma ray bursts would regularly wipe out any life forms more elaborate than microbes. The detonations also kept the universe lifeless for billions of years after the big bang, the researchers say. (read more)
Small Asteroid to Pass Close to Earth March 5 2016
A small asteroid that two years ago flew past Earth at a comfortable distance of about 1.3 million miles (2 million kilometers) will safely fly by our planet again in a few weeks, though this time it may be much closer.
During the upcoming March 5 flyby, asteroid 2013 TX68 could fly past Earth as far out as 9 million miles (14 million kilometers) or as close as 11,000 miles (17,000 kilometers). The variation in possible closest approach distances is due to the wide range of possible trajectories for this object, since it was tracked for only a short time after discovery.
Scientists at NASA's Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have determined there is no possibility that this object could impact Earth during the flyby next month. But they have identified an extremely remote chance that this small asteroid could impact on Sep. 28, 2017, with odds of no more than 1-in-250-million. Flybys in 2046 and 2097 have an even lower probability of impact.
"The possibilities of collision on any of the three future flyby dates are far too small to be of any real concern," said Paul Chodas, manager of CNEOS. "I fully expect any future observations to reduce the probability even more."(read more)
Astronomers peer inside stars, finding giant magnets
Astronomers have for the first time probed the magnetic fields in the mysterious inner regions of stars. Using a technique called asteroseismology, which uses sound waves generated by turbulence on the surface of stars to determine their inner properties, the scientists found that the fusion-powered cores of red giants, stars that are evolved versions of our sun, are strongly magnetized. The findings will help astronomers better understand the evolution of stars (read more)
Hubble’s planetary portrait captures changes in Jupiter’s Great Red Spo
In this new image of Jupiter a broad range of features have been captured, including winds, clouds and storms. The scientists behind the new images took pictures of Jupiter using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 over a ten-hour period and have produced two maps of the entire planet from the observations. These maps make it possible to determine the speed of Jupiter’s winds, to identify different phenomena in its atmosphere and to track changes in its most famous features. (read more)
Galactic Superwaves - Their Effects on Life and Society
When cosmic rays from Galactic superwaves impact the Earth’s atmosphere, they produce "electron cascades."
Each primary cosmic ray generates millions of secondary high energy electrons. Many of these particles scatter upwards and become trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field to form radiation belts similar to those created by high altitude nuclear explosions.
In just one day, a major Galactic superwave event would inject into the geomagnetic field a particle energy equivalent to 1000 one-megaton hydrogen bomb explosions (1025 ergs). At this rate, the energy delivered to the belts after one year would exceed 30,000 times the energy received from the most powerful solar cosmic ray storms observed in modern times.
Such energized radiation belts could cause a global communications blackout by creating radio static and by permanently damaging critical electronic components of communication satellites. Air travel during such conditions would be extremely hazardous. (read more)
How to See Uranus, Mercury, Jupiter and Mars
The next week or two Uranus, Mercury, Jupiter and Mars are making notable appearances in the night sky
Sometimes a whole bunch of different sky events happen over a very short period, giving skywatchers a chance to witness many unusual events in a few days. The next week or two is a case in point, with Uranus, Mercury, Jupiter and Mars are making notable appearances in the night sky.
Comet carries alcohol, sugar
Like a roving interplanetary cocktail bar, a comet is carting around booze and sugar. The aptly named Comet Lovejoycontains ethanol and the simple sugar glycolaldehyde, researchers report online October 23 in Science Advances. This is the first time these complex organic molecules have been detected on a comet. (read more)